Wei KR, Zheng RS, Zhang SW, Liang ZH, Ou ZX, Chen WQ. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma incidence and mortality in China in 2010. Chin J Cancer. 2014;33(8):381–7.
Sarmiento MP, Mejia MB. Preliminary assessment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma incidence in the Philippines: a second look at published data from four centers. Chin J Cancer. 2014;33(3):159–64.
Trends in cancer incidence in Singapore 2008–2012. National Registry of Diseases Office (NRDO) 2013.
Armstrong RW, Imrey PB, Lye MS, Armstrong MJ, Yu MC, Sani S. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese: salted fish and other dietary exposures. Int J Cancer. 1998;77(2):228–35.
Cheng YJ, Hildesheim A, Hsu M-M, Chen IH, Brinton LA, Levine PH, et al. Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan. Cancer Causes Control. 1999;10(3):201–7.
Ekburanawat W, Ekpanyaskul C, Brennan P, Kanka C, Tepsuwan K, Temiyastith S, et al. Evaluation of non-viral risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Thailand: results from a case-control study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010;11(4):929–32.
Fachiroh J, Sangrajrang S, Johansson M, Renard H, Gaborieau V, Chabrier A, et al. Tobacco consumption and genetic susceptibility to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in Thailand. Cancer Causes Control. 2012;23(12):1995–2002.
Ji X, Zhang W, Xie C, Wang B, Zhang G, Zhou F. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk by histologic type in central China: impact of smoking, alcohol and family history. Int J Cancer. 2011;129(3):724–32.
Jia WH, Luo XY, Feng BJ, Ruan HL, Bei JX, Liu WS, et al. Traditional Cantonese diet and nasopharyngeal carcinoma risk: a large-scale case–control study in Guangdong, China. BMC Cancer. 2010;10(446):1471–2407.
Lee HP, Gourley L, Duffy SW, Esteve J, Lee J, Day NE. Preserved foods and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-control study among Singapore Chinese. Int J Cancer. 1994;59(5):585–90.
Yu MC, Ho JH, Lai SH, Henderson BE. Cantonese-style salted fish as a cause of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: report of a case-control study in Hong Kong. Cancer Res. 1986;46(2):956–61.
Yu MC, Mo CC, Chong WX, Yeh FS, Henderson BE. Preserved foods and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-control study in Guangxi, China. Cancer Res. 1988;48(7):1954–9.
Yu MC, Garabrant DH, Huang TB, Henderson BE. Occupational and other non-dietary risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Guangzhou, China. Int J Cancer. 1990;45(6):1033–9.
Yuan JM, Wang XL, Xiang YB, Gao YT, Ross RK, Yu MC. Non-dietary risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Shanghai, China. Int J Cancer. 2000;85(3):364–9.
Armstrong RW, Armstrong MJ, Yu MC, Henderson BE. Salted fish and inhalants as risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese. Cancer Res. 1983;43(6):2967–70.
Geser A, Charnay N, Day NE, de-The G, Ho HC. Environmental factors in the etiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: report on a case-control study in Hong Kong. IARC Sci Publ. 1978;20:213–29.
Friborg JT, Yuan JM, Wang R, Koh WP, Lee HP, Yu MC. A prospective study of tobacco and alcohol use as risk factors for phryngeal carcinomas in Singapore Chinese. Cancer. 2007;109(6):1183–91.
Yu MC, Yuan JM. Epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Semin Cancer Biol. 2002;12(6):421–9.
Lin TM, Chen KP, Lin CC, Hsu MM, Tu SM, Chiang TC, et al. Retrospective study on nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1973;51(5):1403–8.
Nam JM, McLaughin JK, Blot WJ. Cigarette smoking, alcohol, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case-control study among U.S. whites. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1992;84:619–22.
Henderson BE, Louie E, Jing JSH, Buell P, Gardner MB. Risk factors associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 1976;295(20):1101–6.
Mabuchi K, Bross DS, Kessler II. Cigarette smoking and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer. 1985;55(12):2874–6.
Polesel J, Franceschi S, Talamini R, Negri E, Barzan L, Montella M, et al. Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and the risk of different histological types of nasopharyngeal cancer in a low-risk population. Oral Oncol. 2011;47(6):541–5.
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Lyon: IARC Press. 2012:100E.
Tsao SW, Yip YL, Tsang CM, Pang PS, Lau VM, Zhang G, et al. Etiological factors of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Oral Oncol. 2014;50(5):330–8.
Jia WH, Qin HD. Non-viral environmental risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a systematic review. Semin Cancer Biol. 2012;22(2):117–26.
Xue WQ, Qin HD, Ruan HL, Shugart YY, Jia WH. Quantitative association of tobacco smoking with the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a comprehensive meta-analysis of studies conducted between 1979 and 2011. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178(3):325–38.
China-WHO country cooperation strategy 2013–2015. Bridging the past towards a new era of collaboration. Geneva: WHO; 2013.
Newcomb PA, Carbone PP. The health consequences of smoking. Cancer. Med Clin North Am. 1992;76(2):305–31.
Foundation to risk factors-The Oral Cancer Foundation. http://www.oralcancerfoundation.org/understanding/risk-factors.php. Accessed 7 Jan 2015.
Breslow NE, Day NE. Statistical methods in cancer research: the analysis of case–control studies, vol. 1. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 1980.
Holford TR, White C, Kelsey JL. Multivariate analysis for matched case-control studies. Am J Epidemiol. 1978;107(3):245–56.
Armstrong RW, Imrey PB, Lye MS, Armstrong MJ, Yu MC, Sani S. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese: occupational exposures to particles, formaldehyde and heat. Int J Epidemiol. 2000;29(6):991–8.
Nesic V, Sipetic S, Vlajinac H, Stosic-Divjak S, Jesic S. Risk factors for the occurrence of undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type: a case–control study. Srp Arh Celok Lek. 2010;138(1–2):6–10.
Guo X, Johnson RC, Deng H, Liao J, Guan L, Nelson GW, et al. Evaluation of nonviral risk factors for nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a high-risk population of Southern China. Int J Cancer. 2009;124(12):2942–7.
Poirier S, De-The G, Hubert A, Ohshima H, Bourgade MC, Bartsch H. Volatile nitrosamine levels in common foods from tunisia, south china and greenland, high-risk areas for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Int J Cancer. 1987;39(3):293–6.
Suancai, more than just a Chinese sauerkraut. reputable sources: organizing ferments since 2013. https://reputablesources.wordpress.com/2013/05/25/35/. Acesssed 27 May 2016.
Chinese pickles. Wikipedia. 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_pickles. Accessed 12 Mar 2015.
Lau HY, Leung CM, Chan YH, Lee AWM, Kwong DLW, Lung M, et al. Secular trends of salted fish consumption and nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a multi-jurisdiction ecological study in 8 regions from 3 continents. BMC Cancer. 2013;13(1):298.
Wen-son H. Head and neck cancer: are you at risk? Singapore Oncology Consultants. 2009. http://singaporeoncology.com.sg/head-and-neck-cancer-are-you-at-risk/. Accessed 6 Jan 2015.