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Table 2 Association between lifestyle variables, dietary habits, and weaning practices and the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

From: Associations of lifestyle and diet with the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Singapore: a case–control study

Variable Matched-pair analysis P valuee
No. of cases (%) No. of controls (%) Crude OR (95% CI)
Lifestyle
 Tobacco smoking
  Never 146 (50.3) 212 (73.1) 1  
  Current 79 (27.2) 33 (11.4) 4.50 (2.61–7.78) <0.001
  Former 65 (22.4) 45 (15.5) 2.37 (1.48–3.79) <0.001
 Alcohol consumptiona
  No 114 (39.3) 120 (41.4) 1  
  Yes 176 (60.7) 170 (58.6) 1.11 (0.77–1.59) 0.581
Dietaryb
 Salted fish
  Never/rarely 251 (86.6) 264 (92.0) 1  
  Monthly 32 (11.0) 20 (7.0) 1.67 (0.93–2.99) 0.087
  Weekly/daily 7 (2.4) 3 (1.0) 2.33 (0.60–9.02) 0.220
  P-trend     0.033
 Salted meat
  Never/rarely 222 (76.8) 248 (86.4) 1  
  Monthly 47 (16.3) 28 (9.8) 2.04 (1.18–3.50) 0.010
  Weekly/daily 20 (6.9) 11 (3.8) 2.18 (0.97–4.89) 0.059
  P-trend     0.003
 Salted vegetables
  Never/rarely 205 (70.7) 237 (81.7) 1  
  Monthly 61 (21.0) 46 (15.9) 1.54 (0.99–2.39) 0.053
  Weekly/daily 24 (8.3) 7 (2.4) 3.70 (1.58–8.64) 0.002
  P-trend     <0.001
 Smoked fish
  Never/rarely 264 (98.5) 259 (89.9) 1  
  Monthly 22 (7.6) 26 (9.0) 0.84 (0.47–1.50) 0.555
  Weekly/daily 4 (1.4) 3 (1.0) 1.33 (0.30–5.96) 0.706
  P-trend     0.816
 Smoked meat
  Never/rarely 240 (82.8) 231 (79.9) 1  
  Monthly 39 (13.5) 51 (17.7) 0.75 (0.47–1.18) 0.214
  Weekly/daily 11 (3.8) 7 (2.4) 1.52 (0.55–4.24) 0.419
  P-trend     0.538
 Preserved vegetables
  Never/rarely 216 (74.5) 230 (81.0) 1  
  Monthly 56 (19.3) 44 (15.5) 1.33 (0.85–2.07) 0.213
  Weekly/daily 18 (6.2) 10 (3.5) 1.86 (0.82–4.23) 0.138
  P-trend     0.061
 Rusip/Chincalupc
  Never/rarely 277 (95.9) 268 (96.8) 1  
  Monthly 10 (3.5) 5 (1.8) 1.93 (0.66–5.68) 0.232
  Weekly/daily 2 (0.7) 4 (1.4) 0.55 (0.10–3.06) 0.496
  P-trend     0.866
Weaning practicesd
 Breastfed
  No 70 (24.1) 83 (28.6) 1  
  Yes 134 (46.2) 141 (48.6) 1.29 (0.83–2.02) 0.259
  Unknown 86 (29.7) 66 (22.8)   
 Porridge
  No 4 (1.4) 10 (3.5) 1  
  Yes 218 (75.2) 212 (73.1) 2.25 (0.69–7.31) 0.177
  Unknown 68 (23.5) 68 (23.5)   
 Salted fish
  No 117 (40.3) 164 (56.6) 1  
  Yes 59 (20.3) 27 (9.3) 2.21 (1.18–4.16) 0.014
  Unknown 114 (39.3) 99 (34.1)   
 Salted meat
  No 126 (43.5) 169 (58.3) 1  
  Yes 43 (14.8) 17 (5.9) 2.56 (1.18–5.52) 0.017
  Unknown 121 (41.7) 104 (35.9)   
 Preserved vegetables
  No 121 (41.7) 157 (54.1) 1  
  Yes 53 (18.3) 32 (11.0) 2.15 (1.12–4.16) 0.003
  Unknown 116 (40.0) 101 (34.8)   
 Tin/canned food
  No 104 (35.9) 142 (49.0) 1  
  Yes 75 (25.9) 45 (15.5) 1.78 (1.0–3.17) 0.051
  Unknown 111 (38.3) 103 (35.5)   
 Pre-chewed food
  No 119 (41.0) 154 (53.1) 1  
  Yes 51 (17.6) 59 (20.3) 1.68 (1.0–2.85) 0.053
  Unknown 120 (41.4) 77 (26.6)   
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aInclusive of current and past drinkers
  3. bAnalysis excludes missing values (range, 1–13 missing values)
  4. cTraditional food of Bangka people and is made from fermented anchovies
  5. dAnalysis excludes the cases and controls with unknown data
  6. eBased on conditional logistic regression, P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant