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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of 290 pairs of study participants

From: Associations of lifestyle and diet with the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Singapore: a case–control study

Variable Patients Controls P valuec
Age (years)    0.069
 Mean ± standard deviation 49.9 ± 10.3 48.3 ± 10.8  
Sex    1.000
 Men 236 (81.4) 236 (81.4)  
 Women 54 (18.6) 54 (18.6)
Ethnicity    1.000
 Chinese 273 (94.1) 273 (94.1)  
 Malay 15 (5.2) 15 (5.2)
 Indian 2 (0.7) 2 (0.7)
Marital status    0.519
 Not married 47 (16.3) 60 (20.7)  
 Widowed 4 (1.4) 4 (1.4)
 Divorced 11 (3.8) 8 (2.8)
 Currently married 228 (78.6) 218 (75.2)
Education    <0.001
 None 6 (2.1) 2 (0.7)  
 Primary 52 (17.9) 11 (3.8)
 Secondary 117 (40.3) 70 (24.1)
 Tertiary and higher 115 (39.7) 207 (71.4)
Chinese dialecta    0.051
 Cantonese 46 (16.9) 61 (22.3)  
 Hakkas 25 (9.2) 21 (7.7)
 Hokkien 125 (45.8) 96 (35.2)
 Teo Chew 55 (20.2) 60 (22.0)
 Othersb 22 (8.1) 35 (12.8)
WHO type of NPC    
 I 2 (0.7) NA  
 II 55 (19.0) NA  
 III 231 (79.6) NA  
 Unknown 2 (0.7) NA  
  1. Except for the data of age, other values are presented as the number of pairs followed by percentages in the parentheses
  2. NA not applicable
  3. aAmong 290 pairs of participants, 273 were Chinese
  4. bOther dialects included Hainanese, Fuchow, Hinghwa, HockChia, Peranakan, Shangainese, and Wenzhou
  5. cBased on Chi square test, Fisher’s exact test, or t test where appropriate; P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant