Skip to main content


Table 1 Disruption of circadian gene expression in different cancers

From: Carcinogenic effects of circadian disruption: an epigenetic viewpoint

Cancer type Involved gene(s) Reference(s)
Breast cancer NPAS2, CLOCK, CRY2, TIMELESS, PER1, PER2, CRY1, and BMAL1 [12, 40]
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) CRY1, CRY2, PER1, PER2, PER3, CKIε, and BMAL1 [12, 43, 58]
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) PER1, PER2, BMAL1, Wee1, Cyclin D1, and Myc [30]
Ovarian cancer BMAL1 [44]
Colorectal cancer (CRC) BMAL1 [47]
Prostate cancer PER1, PER2, PER3, CKIε, CRY1, CRY2, BMAL1, CLOCK, and NPAS2 [59, 60]
Non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) PER1 [51]
Gastric cancer PER2 and CRY1 [29]
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1, CRY2, CKIε, BMAL1, and TIM [61]
  1. NPAS2 neuronal PAS domain protein 2, CLOCK circadian locomotor output cycles kaput, CRY2 cryptochrome circadian clock 2, TIMELESS timeless circadian clock, PER1/2/3 period circadian clock 1/2/3, CRY1/2 cryptochrome circadian clock 1/2, BMAL1 brain and muscle ARNT-like 1, CKIε casein kinase I isoform epsilon, Wee1 WEE1 G2 checkpoint kinase, Cyclin D1 parathyroid adenomatosis 1, Myc v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog, TIM transforming immortalized mammary oncogene.