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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses to identify predictors for overall survival (n = 309) of PDAC patients in the original cohort

From: Laparoscopic versus open pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: a propensity score matching analysis

Variable Univariate Multivariate
HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P
Age 1.001 (0.983–1.019) 0.902   
Gender (male vs. female) 1.048 (0.729–1.509) 0.799   
BMI 1.005 (0.945–1.068) 0.884   
ASA score (1 vs. 2 vs. 3) 1.053 (0.700–1.583) 0.804   
Charlson comorbidity index (0 vs. 1 vs. ≥ 2) 0.846 (0.646–1.109) 0.226   
Year of operation (2013–2015 vs. 2016–2017) 0.708 (0.467–1.073) 0.103   
Tumor differentiation (well-moderate vs. poor) 1.909 (1.318–2.764) 0.001 2.020 (1.368–2.984) < 0.001
Nerve invasion (yes vs. no) 1.168 (0.749–1.821) 0.494   
T stage (1 vs. 2 vs. 3) 1.459 (1.041–2.045) 0.028 1.452 (0.986–2.138) 0.059
N stage (0 vs. 1 vs. 2) 1.294 (1.009–1.659) 0.042 1.140 (0.478–2.718) 0.768
AJCC TNM stage (I vs. II vs. III) 1.334 (1.037–1.716) 0.025 1.167 (0.467–2.915) 0.740
Adjuvant treatment (yes vs. no) 0.410 (0.290–0.580) < 0.001 0.364 (0.245–0.539) < 0.001
Operative time 1.000 (0.999–1.002) 0.693   
Estimated blood loss 1.000 (0.999–1.001) 0.712   
Blood transfusion (yes vs. no) 1.107 (0.704–1.742) 0.659   
No. of resected lymph nodes 1.012 (0.994–1.031) 0.191   
R0 resection (yes vs. no) 0.342 (0.085–1.385) 0.133   
Surgical approach (LPD vs. OPD) 1.483 (1.031–2.135) 0.034 1.042 (0.675–1.608) 0.853
  1. PDAC pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, BMI body mass index, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists score, AJCC American Joint Committee on Cancer, OPD open pancreaticoduodenectomy, LPD laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy, HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval