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Table 1 Clinical and histopathological characteristics of 548 patients with colon cancer and the 346 patients with pN0 colon cancer within them grouped into 3 risk-groups according to their final error probability

From: Modelling the probability of erroneous negative lymph node staging in patients with colon cancer

Characteristic Low-risk group (FEP < 2%) Intermediate-risk group (FEP 2%–15%) High-risk group (FEP > 15%) Entire cohort P value
Number of cases 35 244 67 548  
Age [years, median (range)] 66 (41–84) 74 (30–95) 76 (41–95) 72 (30–95) 0.002
Gender [cases (%)] 0.322
 Male 12 (34.3%) 102 (41.8%) 33 (49.3%) 296 (54.0%)  
 Female 23 (65.7%) 142 (58.2%) 34 (50.7%) 252 (46.0%)  
Tumour location [cases (%)] 0.001
 Right colon 18 (51.4%) 108 (44.3%) 14 (20.9%) 224 (40.9%)  
 Left colon 16 (45.7%) 118 (48.4%) 50 (74.6%) 290 (52.9%)  
 Unknown 1 (2.9%) 18 (7.4%) 3 (4.5%) 34 (6.2%)  
Tumour size (mm, mean ± SD) 55 ± 30 48 ± 21 36 ± 19 46 ± 21 < 0.001
Histological classification [cases (%)] 0.344
 Adenocarcinoma 29 (82.9%) 206 (84.4%) 62 (92.5%) 465 (84.9%)  
 Mucinous variant 6 (17.1%) 33 (13.5%) 5 (7.5%) 74 (13.5%)  
 Signet-ring cell 0 5 (2.0%) 0 9 (1.6%)  
Tumour differentiation grade [cases (%)] 0.013
 Well 11 (31.4%) 70 (28.7%) 33 (49.3%) 151 (27.6%)  
 Moderate 22 (62.9%) 160 (65.6%) 26 (38.8%) 343 (62.6%)  
 Poor 1 (2.9%) 8 (3.3%) 5 (7.5%) 35 (6.4%)  
 Unknown 1 (2.9%) 6 (2.5%) 3 (4.5%) 19 (3.5%)  
Lymphadenectomy < 0.001
 Number of analysed LNs [median (range)] 23 (19–45) 11 (6–18) 4 (1–5) 10 (1–45)  
 < 12 analysed LNs [cases (%)] 0 142 (58.2%) 67 (100%) 308 (56.2%)  
 ≥ 12analysed LNs [cases (%)] 35 (100%) 102 (41.8%) 0 240 (43.8%)  
pT [6th edition, cases (%)] 0.044
 pT1 1 (2.9%) 18 (7.4%) 12 (17.9%) 31 (5.7%)  
 pT2 4 (11.4%) 47 (19.3%) 11 (16.4%) 85 (15.5%)  
 pT3 28 (80%) 158 (64.8%) 34 (50.7%) 367 (67.0%)  
 pT4 2 (5.7%) 20 (8.2%) 9 (13.4%) 63 (11.5%)  
 pTx 0 1 (0.4%) 1 (1.5%) 2 (0.4%)  
pN [7th edition, cases (%)] < 0.001
 pN0 35 (100%) 244 (100%) 67 (100%) 346 (63.1%)  
 pN+ 0 0 0 202 (36.9%)  
 pN1a 0 0 0 73 (13.3%)  
 pN1b 0 0 0 70 (12.8%)  
 pN2a 0 0 0 33 (6.0%)  
 pN2b 0 0 0 26 (4.7%)  
Condensed TNM [7th edition, cases (%)] 0.094
 I 5 (14.3%) 65 (26.6%) 23 (34.3%) 93 (17.0%)  
 II 30 (85.7%) 179 (73.4%) 44 (65.7%) 253 (46.2%)  
 III 0 0 0 202 (36.9%)  
Chemotherapy [cases (%)] 0.300
 No 26 (74.3%) 197 (80.7%) 58 (86.6%) 371 (67.7%)  
 Yes 9 (25.7%) 47 (19.3%) 9 (13.4%) 177 (32.3%)  
Overall mortality [cases (%)] 0.019
 No 29 (82.9%) 162 (66.4%) 37 (55.2%) 334 (60.9%)  
 Yes 6 (17.1%) 82 (33.6%) 30 (44.8%) 214 (39.1%)  
Overall recurrence [cases (%)] 0.185
 No 33 (94.3%) 204 (83.6%) 54 (80.6%) 439 (80.1%)  
 Yes 2 (5.7%) 40 (16.4%) 13 (19.4%) 109 (19.9%)  
Locoregional recurrence [cases (%)] 0.215
 No 35 (100%) 224 (91.8%) 62 (92.5%) 509 (92.9%)  
 Yes 0 20 (8.2%) 5 (7.5%) 39 (7.1%)  
Metastasis [cases (%)] 0.397
 No 33 (94.3%) 214 (87.7%) 57 (85.1%) 456 (83.2%)  
 Yes 2 (5.7%) 30 (12.3%) 10 (14.9%) 92 (16.8%)  
Follow-up [months, median (range)] 58 (3–95) 51 (1–95) 55 (1–91) 51 (1–99) 0.167
  1. FEP final error probability, SD standard deviation, LN lymph node, TNM tumor-node-metastasis