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Table 1 The frequency and the sites of tumor invasion identified by magnetic resonance imaging in 229 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)

From: Impact of primary tumor volume and location on the prognosis of patients with locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Anatomical site No. of patients (%)
Skull base involvement 162 (70.7)
Clivus 140 (61.1)
Basis of sphenoid bone 135 (59.0)
Petrous apex 120 (52.4)
Pterygoid process 114 (49.7)
Foramen lacerum 91 (40.0)
Great wing of sphenoid bone 59 (25.8)
Paranasal sinus 45 (19.7)
Foramen ovale 32 (13.9)
Pterygopalatine fossa 30 (13.1)
Jugular foramen 21 (9.7)
Hypoglossal canal 15 (6.5)
External auditory canal 6 (2.6)
Soft tissue involvement 147 (64.2)
Parapharyngeal space 114 (49.8)
Oropharynx 27 (11.8)
Nasal cavity 23 (10.4)
Prevertebral muscle 21 (9.2)
Masticator space 18 (7.9)
Intracranial invasion 74 (32.3)
Cavernous sinus 71 (31.0)
Retroclival space 11 (4.8)
Orbital apex 11 (4.8)