antitumor activity of capsaicin against pancreatic cancer. A, AsPC-1 cells were subcutaneously inoculated into the right flanks of the mice, and the mice were divided into 2 groups, as described in the Methods section. The tumor sizes of the treatment and control groups were measured and compared at the indicated time points and are presented as the mean volume ± SD (P < 0.05). B, comparison of the size of excised tumors from the treatment and control groups. C, the weights of the tumors from the treatment and control groups were measured. Error bars indicate SD (P < 0.01, n = 10). D, tissue slices of AsPC-1 tumors with or without capsaicin treatment were subjected to TUNEL assay and staining for 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) (magnification, ×200).