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Table 2 Clinical trials of immune checkpoint blockade in EC

From: The immune landscape of esophageal cancer

TargetDrugTreatmentPhaseStudy IDOutcome summary
PD-1PembrolizumabPembrolizumab aloneIBKeynote-028ORR 30% in PD-L1+ EC
Pembrolizumab aloneIIKeynote-180 (NCT02559687)ORR 14.3% in ESCC and 5.2% in EAC
Pembrolizumab vs. irinotecan or taxanesIIIKeynote-181 (NCT02564263)Median OS in ESCCs: 8.2 vs. 7.1 months
ORR in ESCCs: 16.7% vs. 7.4%
Pembrolizumab + cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil vs. placeboIIIKeynote-590 (NCT03189719)Ongoing
PD-1NivolumabNivolumab vs. taxanesIIINCT02569242Median OS in ESCCs: 10.9 vs. 8.4 months
Nivolumab aloneIIJapicCTI-14242217% of ESCC patients had a centrally assessed objective response
Nivolumab vs. placeboIIICheckmate-577 (NCT02743494)Ongoing
Nivolumab + ipilimumab or nivolumab + fluorouracil + cisplatin vs. fluorouracil + cisplatinIIICheckmate-648 (NCT03143153)Ongoing
 SHR-1210SHR-1210 aloneINCT0274293ORR 30% and median PFS 3.6 months in ESCC
SHR-1210 vs. docetaxel or irinotecanIIINCT03099382N/A
PD-1/CTLA-4Nivolumab/ipilimumabNivolumab (3 mg/kg) vs. nivolumab (1 mg/kg) + ipilimumab (3 mg/kg) vs. nivolumab (3 mg/kg) + ipilimumab (1 mg/kg)I/IICheckMate-032ORR in patients with gastric, esophageal, or gastroesophageal junction cancer: 12% vs. 24% vs. 8%
  1. N/A not available, ORR objective response rate, EC esophageal cancer, ESCC esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, EAC esophageal adenocarcinoma, OS overall survival, PFS progression-free survival, PD-1 programmed death protein-1, CTLA-4 cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4