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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the investigated patients as per different cohorts (N = 886)

From: A nomogram for individualized estimation of survival among adult patients with adrenocortical carcinoma after surgery: a retrospective analysis and multicenter validation study

CharacteristicsTraining set (n = 404)Internal validation set (n = 318)TCGA validation set (n = 82)Chinese multicenter validation set (n = 82)
Number of patientsLow risk (%)High risk (%)Number of patientsLow risk (%)High risk (%)Number of patientsLow risk (%)High risk (%)Number of patientsLow risk (%)High risk (%)
Age, years
 Median (IQR)54 (20–89)55 (20–89)61 (27–86)52 (20–85)55 (20–85)59 (34–74)50 (20–83)48 (20–83)59 (23–71)49 (19–79)48 (19–77)61 (49–79)
Sex
 Male146128 (87.7%)18 (12.3%)133125 (94.0%)8 (6.0%)2826 (92.9%)2 (7.1%)3834 (89.5%)4 (10.5%)
 Female258232 (89.9%)26 (10.1%)185169 (91.4%)16 (8.6%)5447 (87.0%)7 (13.0%)4442 (95.5%)2 (4.5%)
Tumor location
 Left224204 (91.1%)20 (8.9%)163150 (92.0%)13 (8.0%)4337 (86.0%)6 (14.0%)5653 (94.6%)3 (5.4%)
 Right180156 (86.7%)24 (13.3%)155144 (92.9%)11 (7.1%)3936 (92.3%)3 (7.7%)2623 (88.5%)3 (11.5%)
Tumor size, cm
 Median (IQR)11.0 (1.2–80.0)10.7 (1.2–80.0)11.8 (2.6–21.0)11.0 (1.2–34.0)11.0 (1.2–34.0)12.3 (1.7–22.5)9.1 (0.8–17.8)9.5 (0.8–17.8)6.5 (4.5–11.1)
7th AJCC T stage
 T12626 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)1616 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)77 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)66 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)
 T2194192 (99.0%)2 (1.0%)190189 (99.5%)1 (0.5%)4543 (95.6%)2 (4.4%)3838 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)
 T310990 (82.6%)19 (17.4%)5849 (84.5%)9 (15.5%)1110 (90.9%)1 (9.1%)2019 (95.0%)1(5.0%)
 T47552 (69.3%)23 (30.7%)5440 (74.1%)14 (25.9%)1913 (68.4%)6 (31.6%)1813 (72.2%)5 (17.8%)
7th AJCC N stage
 N0371351 (94.6%)20 (5.4%)290286 (98.6%)4 (1.4%)7371 (97.3%)2 (2.7%)7472 (97.3%)2 (2.7%)
 N1339 (27.3%)24 (72.7%)288 (28.6%)20 (71.4%)92 (22.2%)7 (77.8%)84 (50.0%)4 (50.0%)
7th AJCC M stage
 M0328319 (97.3%)9 (2.7%)287277 (96.5%)10 (3.6%)6666 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)6868 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)
 M17641 (53.9%)35 (46.1%)3117 (54.8%)14 (45.2%)167 (43.8%)9 (56.2%)148 (57.1%)6 (42.9%)
7th AJCC stage group
 I2424 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)1515 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)77 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)55 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)
 II173173 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)176176 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)4141 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)3131 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)
 III8383 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)5252 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)1111 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)2222 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)
 IV12480 (64.5%)44 (35.5%)7551 (68.0%)24 (32.0%)2314 (60.9%)9 (39.1%)2418 (75.0%)6 (25.0%)
ENSAT stage group
 I2424 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)1515 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)77 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)55 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)
 II173173 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)176176 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)4141 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)3131 (100.0%)0 (0.0%)
 III131122 (93.1%)9 (6.9%)9686 (89.6%)10 (10.4%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)
 IV7641 (53.9%)35 (46.1%)3115 (48.4%)16 (51.6%)3425 (73.5%)9 (26.5%)4640 (87.0%)6 (23.0%)
  1. Data are n or n (%) unless indicated otherwise. The ENSAT staging system was consistent with the 8th AJCC staging system
  2. IQR interquartile range, TCGA the Cancer Genome Atlas, AJCC the American Joint Committee on Cancer, ENSAT European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors