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Table 5 Comparison of operative and postoperative characteristics of PDAC patients among OPD, early-phase LPD and late-phase LPD groups

From: Laparoscopic versus open pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: a propensity score matching analysis

Characteristic OPD group
(n = 230)
LPD group P 1
(Early- vs. late-phase LPD)
P 2
(OPD vs. early-phase LPD)
P 3
(OPD vs. late-phase LPD)
Early-phase
(n = 40)
Late-phase
(n = 39)
Operative time [min, median (IQR)] 260.5 (210.0–360.0) 360.0 (336.5–397.5) 260.0 (250.0–320.0) < 0.001 < 0.001 0.284
Estimated blood loss [mL, median (IQR)] 200.0 (100.0–400.0) 200.0 (150.0–250.0) 100.0 (50.0–200.0) < 0.001 0.180 < 0.001
Blood transfusion [cases (%)] 24 (10.4) 11 (27.5) 8 (20.5) 0.468 0.003 0.126
No. of resected lymph nodes [median (IQR)] 11.0 (7.0–15.0) 18.5 (14.3.0–26.8) 17.0 (13.0–21.0) 0.201 < 0.001 < 0.001
No. of positive lymph nodes [median (IQR)] 0 (0–2.0) 1.0 (0–2.8) 0 (0–1.0) 0.147 0.256 0.486
Positive lymph node ratio [median (IQR)] 0 (0–0.14) 0.06 (0–0.11) 0 (0–0.06) 0.110 1.000 0.154
R0 resection [cases (%)] 221 (96.1) 40 (100) 39 (100) NA 0.426 0.438
POPF [cases (%)] 86 (37.4) 11 (27.5) 9 (23.1) 0.651 0.229 0.084
 Biochemical leak 74 (32.2) 7 (17.5) 6 (15.4) 0.800 0.062 0.034
 Grade B/C 12 (5.2) 4 (10.0) 3 (7.7) 1.000 0.412 0.806
DGE [cases (%)] 66 (28.7) 1 (2.5) 0 (0) 1.000a < 0.001a < 0.001
 Grade A 27 (11.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0) NA 0.046 0.049
 Grade B/C 39 (17.0) 1 (2.5) 0 (0) 1.000a 0.018 0.005
PPH [cases (%)] 14 (6.1) 4 (10.0) 2 (5.1) 0.695 0.567 1.000
 Grade A 5 (2.2) 0 (0) 1 (2.6) 0.494a 1.000a 1.000a
 Grade B/C 9 (3.9) 4 (10.0) 1 (2.6) 0.371 0.208 1.000
BL [cases (%)] 15 (6.5) 3 (7.5) 3 (7.7) 1.000 1.000 1.000
 Grade A 5 (2.2) 0 (0) 0 (0) NA 1.000a 1.000a
 Grade B/C 10 (4.3) 3 (7.5) 3 (7.7) 1.000 0.646 0.619
Intra-abdominal infection [cases (%)] 21 (9.1) 2 (5.0) 2 (5.1) 1.000 0.578 0.605
Wound infection [cases (%)] 3 (1.3) 3 (7.5) 1 (2.6) 0.134 0.044a 0.468a
Other complications [cases (%)] 24 (10.4) 5 (12.5) 3 (7.7) 0.737 0.910 0.811
Overall complications [cases (%)] 151 (65.7) 25 (62.5) 14 (35.9) 0.018 0.699 < 0.001
 Clavien I–II 133 (57.8) 18 (45.0) 12 (30.8) 0.193 0.132 0.002
 Clavien III–V 18 (7.8) 7 (17.5) 2 (5.1) 0.169 0.098 0.792
DSA [cases (%)] 7 (3.0) 4 (10.0) 1 (2.6) 0.371 0.105 1.000
Reoperation [cases (%)] 3 (1.3) 4 (10.0) 1 (2.6) 0.371 0.008 0.468a
In-hospital mortality [cases (%)] 2 (0.9) 0 (0) 1 (2.6) 0.494a 1.000a 0.376a
90-day readmission [cases (%)] 32 (13.9) 3 (7.5) 5 (12.8) 0.681 0.265 0.855
Postoperative length of stay [days, median (IQR)] 13.0 (10.0–19.0) 13.0 (11.0–23.5) 12.0 (10.0–16.0) 0.180 0.356 0.404
  1. PDAC pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, OPD open pancreaticoduodenectomy, LPD laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy, POPF Postoperative pancreatic fistula, DGE delayed gastric emptying, PPH postpancreatectomy hemorrhage, BL bile leakage, DSA digital subtraction angiography, IQR interquartile range, NA not available
  2. aFisher’s exact test