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Table 2 Cox proportional hazards regression analyses of recurrence in the training cohort

From: A nomogram predicting the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients after laparoscopic hepatectomy

Variable Total (cases) Events (cases) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
HR (95% CI) P value Estimated coefficient HR (95% CI) P value
Age (years)    0.738 (0.471–1.156) 0.233    
 < 65 281 139      
 ≥ 65 43 17      
Sex    0.966 (0.580–1.609) 0.895    
 Male 285 140      
 Female 39 16      
Hepatitis B surface antigen    2.070 (1.363–3.146) 0.008 0.609 1.838 (1.016–3.327) 0.044
 Yes 276 142      
 No 48 14      
Liver macronodular cirrhosis    1.741 (1.235–2.455) 0.006 0.125 1.133 (0.814–1.575) 0.460
 None 87 33      
 Light 226 121      
 Medium 8 1      
 Heavy 3 1      
AFP (ng/mL)    1.712 (1.242–2.361) < 0.001 0.128 1.137 (0.793–1.629) 0.485
 < 200 182 74      
 ≥ 200 142 82      
CA19-9 (ng/mL)    1.359 (0.920–2.009) 0.092    
 < 35 248 116      
 ≥ 35 76 40      
AST (IU/L)    1.930 (1.226–3.039) < 0.001 0.122 1.129 (0.673–1.895) 0.646
 < 50 266 119      
 ≥ 50 58 37      
ALT (IU/L)    1.516 (1.039–2.213) 0.018 0.285 1.329 (0.866–2.041) 0.193
 < 50 246 109      
 ≥ 50 78 47      
Hemoglobin (g/L)    0.733 (0.472–1.140) 0.124    
 < 130 55 30      
 ≥ 130 269 126      
Albumin (g/dL)    0.819 (0.176–3.812) 0.778    
 < 35 5 2      
 ≥ 35 319 154      
Bilirubin (mg/dL)    1.157 (0.770–1.737) 0.461    
 < 17.1 260 124      
 ≥ 17.1 64 32      
Platelet count (*103/mm3)    0.610 (0.250–1.490) 0.168    
 < 80 14 8      
 ≥ 80 310 148      
Prothrombin time (INR)    0.070    
 ≤ 0.85 3 0      
 0.85–1.2 313 151      
 > 1.2 8 5      
HBV-DNA copy number (Log)    1.183 (0.863–1.621) 0.301    
 < 2 142 64      
 ≥ 2 182 92      
Bleeding (mL)    2.139 (1.090–4.197) 0.002 0.550 1.734 (0.872–3.446) 0.117
 < 800 299 138      
 ≥ 800 25 18      
Operation time (min)    1.194 (0.769–1.855) 0.400    
 < 200 273 129      
 ≥ 200 51 27      
Portal vein embolization    1.407 (1.000–1.980) 0.400    
 Yes 107 59      
 No 217 97      
Tumor size (cm)    2.175 (1.570–3.012) < 0.001 0.208 1.231 (0.809–1.872) 0.332
 < 5 184 69      
 ≥ 5 140 87      
Tumor number    2.324 (1.592–3.392) < 0.001 0.573 1.774 (1.223–2.573) 0.003
 Single 236 94      
 2–3 lesions 88 62      
Cancer cell differentiation    0.615 (0.446–0.849) 0.001 − 0.295 0.745 (0.535–1.036) 0.080
 Low 162 90      
 Medium 151 64      
 High 11 2      
Tumor thrombus    4.126 (1.856–9.170) < 0.001 0.857 2.356 (1.344–4.130) 0.003
 Yes 29 23      
 No 295 133      
MVI    2.291 (1.646–3.189) < 0.001 0.514 1.673 (1.150–2.433) 0.007
 Yes 136 85      
 No 188 71      
Surgical procedure    1.108 (0.444–2.764) 0.718    
 Irregular 200 97      
 Regular 124 59      
Tumor encapsulation    0.978 (0.639–1.498) 0.010 − 0.079 0.924 (0.753–1.135) 0.453
 Absent 119 63      
 Incomplete 79 43      
 Complete 126 50      
Tumor boundary    2.343 (1.204–4.559) < 0.001 − 0.016 0.985 (0.535–1.814) 0.960
 Clear 295 136      
 Unclear 29 20      
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, AFP = alpha fetoprotein, CA19-9 carbohydrate antigen 19-9, AST aspartate transaminase, ALT aminotransferase, INR international normalized ratio, HBV hepatitis B virus, MVI microvascular tumor invasion