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Table 1 Baseline clinicopathologic characteristics for the training and validation cohorts of patients who underwent laparoscopic hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma

From: A nomogram predicting the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients after laparoscopic hepatectomy

Variable Overall cohort (n = 432) Training cohort (n = 324) Validation cohort (n = 108) P value
Age [years; median (IQR)] 52.00 (43.00–60.00) 51.00 (43.00–60.00) 52.50 (44.00–60.25) 0.683
Sex [cases (%)] 0.933
 Male 379 (87.73) 285 (87.96) 94 (87.04)  
 Female 53 (12.27) 39 (12.04) 14 (12.96)  
Hepatitis B surface antigen [cases (%)] 0.937
 Present 369 (85.42) 276 (85.19) 93 (86.11)  
 Absent 63 (14.58) 48 (14.81) 15 (13.89)  
Child–Pugh score [cases (%)] 0.931
 5 359 (83.10) 268 (82.72) 91 (84.26)  
 6 69 (15.97) 53 (16.36) 16 (14.81)  
 7 4 (0.93) 3 (0.93) 1 (0.93)  
AFP [ng/mL; median (IQR)] 91.45 (6.39–1705.00) 93.89 (6.79–1573.50) 78.82 (5.00–2231.75) 0.482
CA19-9 [ng/mL; median (IQR)] 19.24 (10.44–33.99) 20.18 (11.05–34.42) 15.96 (8.58–30.32) 0.692
AST (IU/L; mean ± SD) 41.50 ± 33.02 41.88 ± 35.45 40.36 ± 24.43 0.680
ALT (IU/L; mean ± SD) 41.93 ± 34.14 43.25 ± 37.22 38.00 ± 22.18 0.167
Hemoglobin (g/L; mean ± SD) 154.56 ± 193.60 157.11 ± 223.40 146.93 ± 13.97 0.636
Albumin (g/dL; mean ± SD) 43.28 ± 3.34 43.22 ± 3.41 43.47 ± 3.11 0.498
Bilirubin (mg/dL; mean ± SD) 13.32 ± 4.94 13.31 ± 4.95 13.36 ± 4.96 0.916
Platelet count (× 103/mm3; mean ± SD) 185.62 ± 72.00 184.02 ± 67.22 190.45 ± 84.93 0.422
Prothrombin time (INR; mean ± SD) 1.01 ± 0.08 1.02 ± 0.08 1.01 ± 0.08 0.264
HBV-DNA copy number (Log; mean ± SD) 2.46 ± 2.41 2.54 ± 2.42 2.22 ± 2.38 0.233
Bleeding [mL; median (IQR)] 200 (100–400) 200.00 (100–400) 275.00 (100–500) 0.834
Hospital stay (days; mean ± SD) 11.64 ± 3.87 11.67 ± 3.83 11.55 ± 3.98 0.774
Operation time (min; mean ± SD) 157.32 ± 58.95 155.02 ± 57.54 164.23 ± 62.77 0.160
Portal vein embolization [cases (%)] 1.000
 Yes 143 (33.10) 107 (33.02) 36 (33.33)  
 No 289 (66.90) 217 (66.98) 72 (66.67)  
Tumor size [cm; median (IQR)] 5.00 (3.00–8.00) 5.00 (2.95–8.00) 4.00 (3.00–8.00) 0.932
Tumor location [cases (%)]a 0.066
 Central 270 (62.5) 194 (59.9) 76 (70.4)  
 Non-central 162 (37.5) 130 (40.1) 32 (29.6)  
Tumor lesions [cases (%)] 0.375
 1 320 (74.07) 236 (72.84) 84 (77.78)  
 2–3 112 (25.93) 88 (27.16) 24 (22.22)  
Liver macronodular cirrhosis [cases (%)] 0.248
 None 111 (25.69) 87 (26.85) 24 (22.22)  
 Light 304 (70.37) 226 (69.75) 78 (72.22)  
 Medium 14 (3.24) 8 (2.47) 6 (5.56)  
 Heavy 3 (0.69) 3 (0.93) 0 (0.00)  
Cancer cell differentiation [cases (%)] 0.811
 Low 213 (49.31) 162 (50.00) 51 (47.22)  
 Medium 205 (47.45) 151 (46.60) 54 (50.00)  
 High 14 (3.24) 11 (3.40) 3 (2.78)  
Tumor thrombus [cases (%)] 0.546
 Present 36 (8.33) 29 (8.95) 7 (6.48)  
 Absent 396 (91.67) 295 (91.05) 101 (93.52)  
MVI [cases (%)] 0.336
 Present 175 (40.51) 136 (41.98) 39 (36.11)  
 Absent 257 (59.49) 188 (58.02) 69 (63.89)  
Surgical procedure [cases (%)] 0.608
 Irregular 263 (60.88) 200 (61.73) 63 (58.33)  
 Regular 169 (39.12) 124 (38.27) 45 (41.67)  
Tumor encapsulation [cases (%)] 0.586
 No 153 (35.42) 119 (36.73) 34 (31.48)  
 Incomplete 109 (25.23) 79 (24.38) 30 (27.78)  
 Complete 170 (39.35) 126 (38.89) 44 (40.74)  
Tumor boundary [cases (%)] 0.546
 Clear 396 (91.67) 295 (91.05) 101 (93.52)  
 Unclear 36 (8.33) 29 (8.95) 7 (6.48)  
8th AJCC T stage [cases (%)] 0.320
 T1a 66 (15.28) 44 (13.58) 22 (20.37)  
 T1b 142 (32.87) 104 (32.10) 38 (35.19)  
 T2 157 (36.34) 123 (37.96) 34 (31.48)  
 T3 65 (15.05) 51 (15.74) 14 (12.96)  
 T4 2 (0.46) 2 (0.62) 0 (0.00)  
BCLC stage [cases (%)] 0.731
 0 31 (7.18) 23 (7.10) 8 (7.41)  
 A1 289 (66.90) 213 (65.74) 76 (70.37)  
 A2 18 (4.17) 15 (4.63) 3 (2.78)  
 B 94 (21.76) 73 (22.53) 21 (19.44)  
Follow-up time [months; median (IQR)] 14.38 (4.60–29.38) 13.58 (4.49–26.41) 23.10 (6.63–32.79) 0.012
  1. SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, AFP alpha fetoprotein, CA19-9 carbohydrate antigen 19-9, AST aspartate transaminase, ALT aminotransferase, INR international normalized ratio, HBV hepatitis B virus, MVI microvascular tumor invasion, AJCC American Joint Committee on Cancer, BCLC Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer
  2. The difference between the training cohort and the validation cohort was compared using the Independent Samples t test or Mann–Whitney U test
  3. aCentral = section I, IV, V, VIII; Non-central = section II, III, VI, VII