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Table 1 Summary of various reprogramming approaches converting cancer malignancy to benignity

From: Cancer cell reprogramming: a promising therapy converting malignancy to benignity

Cancer type Cell line Reprogramming approach Delivery method Cell fate Efficiency Effects Publication year References
Melanoma R545 In vitro introduction of KLF4, Oct-3/4, c-Myc Retrovirus Pluripotent cancer cells 0.05%–0.1% Demethylation of the Oct-4 and NANOG promoter regions and loss of in vivo tumorigenicity in chimeras 2009 Utikal et al. [59]
Pancreatic cancer MIAPaCa-2 In vitro introduction of KLF4, Oct-3/4, SOX2, c-Myc Retrovirus and lentivirus Pluripotent cancer cells Not determined Stable differentiation into varied lineages and loss of in vivo tumorigenicity in NOD/SCID mice 2010 Miyoshi et al. [60]
Hepatocellular carcinoma PLC
Colorectal carcinoma DLD-1, HCT116
B cell lymphoma and leukemia RCH-ACV, CEMO-1, Val, MUTZ5, NALM-20 In vitro introduction of C/EBPα Retrovirus and lentivirus Macrophage-like cells 80% partially or entirely reprogrammed Up-regulation of macrophage-associated markers and loss of in vivo tumorigenicity in immunodeficient mice 2013 Rapino et al. [70]
Hepatocellular carcinoma HCCLM3 and Huh7 In vitro introduction of HNF1A, HNF4A, and FOXA3 Adenovirus Hepatocyte-like cells 100% infection efficiency, reprogramming efficiency not determined Recover of hepatocyte functions and capability of in vivo liver regeneration 2018 Cheng et al. [76]
BCR-ABL1 + precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia Human B-ALL clinical samples In vitro delivery of FLT3L, IL-7, IL-3, GM-CSF, MCSF Culture medium Macrophage-like cells 53% initially reprogrammed; After sorting, > 98% yield Recover of phagocytic ability and loss of in vivo tumorigenicity 2015 McClellan et al. [88]
In vitro introduction of C/EBPα or PU.1 Nucleofection
Breast cancer Py2T In vitro delivery of TGF- β or Trametinib, in vivo EMT induction using Cre mice Culture medium, animal model Adipocytes 60% reprogrammed Recover of in vitro adipocyte functions and loss of in vivo metastatic potential 2019 Ishay-Ronen et al. [89]
Skin cancer Colo and PC3 in vitro introduction of MicroRNA-302s Retrovirus Pluripotent embryonic stem-like cells 100% transfection efficiency, 2%–5% reprogramming efficiency Stable differentiation into varied lineages and loss of in vivo tumorigenicity 2008 Lin et al. [102]
Breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 in vitro delivery human embryonic stem cells-derived exosomes Culture medium Pluripotent embryonic stem-like cells 90% of breast cancer cells lost Vimentin expression Recover of benign differentiation pathways and reduction of in vivo tumor-forming potential 2017 Zhou et al. [112]
Colorectal carcinoma Colo-320 and HT-29