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Table 2 Serologic immune markers of GBM

From: Carbon ion radiotherapy boost in the treatment of glioblastoma: a randomized phase I/III clinical trial

Marker Function/correlative findings Assay
Pro-inflammatory/anti-tumor
 IL-1β Stimulates cytotoxicity; serum levels decrease during low-LET radiotherapy [55] Serum ELISA
 IL-6 Pro-inflammatory cytokine, defective expression from lymphocytes in patients with glioma [56] Serum ELISA
 TNF-α Promotes cell-directed cytotoxicity; reduced levels are associated with GBM [57] Serum ELISA
 CD3+ lymphocytes Direct immune-mediated cytotoxicity; increased levels are associated with prolonged survival [58] Flow cytometry
 CD8+ lymphocytes Direct immune-mediated cytotoxicity, increased levels are associated with prolonged survival [58] Flow cytometry
Anti-inflammatory/pro-tumor
 IL-4 Induces immunosuppression and tumor tolerance; high levels are associated with GBM [57] Serum ELISA
 IL-10 Induces immunosuppression and tumor tolerance; high levels are associated with GBM [57] Serum ELISA
 TGF-β Promotes proliferation and immune escape of GBM [59] Serum ELISA
 Regulatory T cells Secrete IL-10 and TGF-β, suppress CD8-dependent tumor-specific cytotoxicity, and elevated in peripheral blood of GBM patients [60] Flow cytometry
  1. GBM glioblastoma, IL interleukin, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor-α, TGF-β transforming growth factor-β, LET linear energy transfer, ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay