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Table 3 Relationships between pathological factors and lymph node metastasis of patients with penile cancer

From: A modified clinicopathological tumor staging system for survival prediction of patients with penile cancer

Variable Training cohort (n = 411) External validation cohort (n = 436)
N0 [cases (%)] N + [cases (%)] χ2 P N0 [cases (%)] N + [cases (%)] χ2 P
Lymphovascular embolization    12.12 < 0.001    61.32 < 0.001
 Yes 30 (42.9) 40 (57.1)    49 (52.7) 44 (47.3)   
 No 222 (65.1) 119 (35.0)    304 (88.7) 39 (11.3)   
Perineural invasion    11.20 < 0.001    1.54 0.214
 Yes 23 (41.1) 33 (58.9)    49 (72.1) 16 (27.9)   
 No 229 (64.5) 126 (35.5)    304 (81.9) 67 (18.1)   
Pathological grade    16.12 < 0.001    2.89 0.069
 G1–2 243 (64.1) 136 (35.9)    272 (82.9) 56 (17.1)   
 G3 9 (28.1) 23 (71.9)    81 (75.0) 27 (25.0)