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Table 1 Clinical and pathological characteristics of the patients with penile cancer

From: A modified clinicopathological tumor staging system for survival prediction of patients with penile cancer

Variable Training cohort [cases (%)] External validation cohort [cases (%)]
Total 411 436
Age, year, median (range) 53.0 (24.0–94.0) 56.0 (18.0–93.0)
Asia
 Mainland China 236 (57.4) 173 (39.7)
 Taiwan, China - 27 (6.2)
South America
 Brazil 175 (42.6) -
 Paraguay - 166 (38.1)
Europe
 Germany - 23 (5.3)
North America
 USA - 47 (10.8)
T stage
 ≤ T1a 158 (38.4) 143 (32.8)
 T2 115 (28.0) 142 (32.6)
 T3 119 (29.0) 142 (32.6)
 T4 19 (4.6) 9 (2.1)
N stage
 N0 252 (61.3) 353 (81.0)
 N1 53 (12.9) 30 (6.9)
 N2 36 (8.8) 21 (4.8)
 N3 70 (17.0) 32 (0.7)
M stage
 M0 403 (98.1) 430 (98.6)
 M1 8 (1.9) 6 (1.4)
Grade
 G1-2 379 (92.2) 328 (75.2)
 G3 32 (7.8) 108 (24.8)
Lymphovascular embolization
 Yes 70 (17.0) 93 (21.3)
 No 341 (83.0) 343 (78.7)
Perineural invasion
 Yes 56 (13.6) 65 (14.9)
 No 355 (86.4) 371 (85.1)
Modified staging systemb
 ≤ t1 158 (38.4) 143 (32.8)
 t2 178 (43.3) 218 (50.0)
 t3 56 (13.6) 66 (15.1)
 t4 19 (4.6) 9 (2.1)
  1. a≤ T1 including T0, Tis, Ta, and T1
  2. b≤ t1 including t0, tis, ta, and t1