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Table 2 The diagnostic performance of eNPM-DM and/or oncologists in nasopharyngeal malignancy

From: Development and validation of an endoscopic images-based deep learning model for detection with nasopharyngeal malignancies

Evaluation indicators Test seta Prospective test seta
eNPM-DM Oncologist level eNPM-DM plus experts
  Expertsb Residentsb Internsb
Accuracy 88.7 (87.8, 89.5) 88.0 (86.1, 89.6) 80.5 ± 0.8 (77.0, 84.0) 72.8 ± 2.5 (66.9, 78.6) 66.5 ± 4.3 (48.0, 84.9) 89.0 (87.2, 90.5)
Sensitivity 91.3 (90.3, 92.2) 90.2 (87.8, 92.2) 89.5 ± 0.5 (87.4, 91.7) 88.8 ± 2.4 (83.1, 94.5) 92.2 ± 2.3 (82.1, 100.0) 87.9 (85.3, 90.2)
Specificity 83.1 (81.1, 84.8) 85.5 (82.7, 88.0) 70.8 ± 1.8 (63.0, 78.6) 55.5 ± 7.2 (38.6, 72.5) 38.9 ± 11.0 (8.5, 86.3) 90.0 (87.5, 92.1)
PPV 92.2 (91.2, 93.0) 86.9 (84.3, 89.2) 76.6 ± 1.1 (71.9, 81.3) 69.5 ± 3.1 (62.2, 76.8) 62.3 ± 3.9 (45.4, 79.2) 90.4 (87.9, 92.4)
NPV 81.3 (79.3, 83.1) 89.2 (86.5, 91.4) 86.4 ± 0.5 (84.0, 88.7) 83.2 ± 1.6 (79.4, 87.0) 82.2 ± 2.4 (71.9, 92.4) 87.5 (84.8, 90.0)
Time(min)   0.67 (~ 40 s) 110.0 ± 5.8 (85.2, 134.8) 99.3 ± 6.3 (84.3, 114.2) 106.7 ± 8.8 (68.7, 144.6)  
  1. eNPM-DM endoscopic images-based nasopharyngeal malignancies detection model, PPV positive predictive value, NPV negative predictive value
  2. aThe numbers in parenthesis are the corresponding 95% confidence interval
  3. bThe performance of the oncologists is presented as mean ± standard error