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Fig. 3 | Cancer Communications

Fig. 3

From: Phenformin alone or combined with gefitinib inhibits bladder cancer via AMPK and EGFR pathways

Fig. 3

Effect of gefitinib combined with phenformin on bladder cancer cell proliferation. a Gefitinib combined with phenformin inhibited MB49 proliferation synergistically. Above: Cell viability was assessed after 48-h treatment with gefitinib (0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, or 1 µmol/L) alone or combined with phenformin (0.125, 0.25, or 0.5 mmol/L). Below: The combination index (CI) assessing synergy between the two drugs was calculated. b Gefitinib combined with phenformin inhibited T24 proliferation synergistically. Above: Cell viability was assessed after 48-h treatment with gefitinib (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 μM) alone or combined with phenformin (0.125, 0.25, or 0.5 mmol/L). Below: The combination index (CI) assessing synergy between the two drugs was calculated. CI = 1 denotes additivity; CI > 1, antagonism; CI < 1, synergism. CI values in nearly all combinations were less than 0.5, indicating moderately strong synergism. c Gefitinib combined with phenformin inhibited UMUC3 proliferation synergistically. Above: Cell viability was assessed after 48-h treatment with gefitinib (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 µmol/L) alone or combined with phenformin (0.0125, 0.025, or 0.05 mmol/L). Below: The combination index (CI) assessing synergy between the two drugs was calculated. Results are the median of five independent experiments

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