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Table 2 Characteristics of the 2492 Asian breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving therapy (1989–2012)

From: Age exerts a continuous effect in the outcomes of Asian breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving therapy

Characteristic Age ≤ 40 years (n = 447) Age > 40 years (n = 2045) P value Strength of association
Age (years)
 Median (range) 36 (22–40) 51 (41–92)   
Race [n (%)]
 Chinese 342 (76.5) 1673 (81.8)   
 Indian 21 (4.7) 94 (4.6)   
 Malay 40 (8.9) 184 (9.0)   
 Others 44 (9.8) 94 (4.6) < 0.001 0.089
T category [n (%)]
 T0/T1/T1a/T1b/T1mic/Tx 85 (19.0) 542 (26.5)   
 T1c 203 (45.4) 912 (44.6)   
 T2–T4 159 (36.6) 591 (28.9) 0.001 − 0.060
N category [n (%)]
 N0 311 (69.6) 1525 (74.6)   
 N1/N1mic 100 (22.4) 391 (19.1)   
 N2/N3 36 (8.1) 129 (6.3) 0.086 − 0.030
TNM stage [n (%)]
 Stage 1 205 (45.9) 1163 (56.9)   
 Stage 2A/2B 204 (45.6) 739 (36.1)   
 Stage 3A/3C 34 (7.6) 130 (6.4) < 0.001 − 0.064
 Unknown 4 (0.9) 13 (0.6)   
Size (cm)
 Median (range) 1.8 (0–7.5) 1.6 (0–8) 0.001  
 Unknown 31 (7) 72 (3.5)   
Grade [n (%)]
 Grade 1 61 (13.6) 440 (21.5)   
 Grade 2 149 (33.3) 769 (37.6)   
 Grade 3 210 (47.0) 727 (35.6) < 0.001 − 0.086
 Unknown 27 (6.0) 109 (5.3)   
Extensive intraductal component [n (%)]
 Not present 326 (72.9) 1567 (76.6)   
 Present 74 (16.6) 372 (18.2) 0.751 0.007
 Not mentioned/missing 47 (10.5) 106 (5.3)   
Margins (mm)
 0–5 215 (48.1) 982 (48.0)   
 6–10 112 (25.1) 533 (26.1)   
 > 10 87 (19.5) 442 (21.6) 0.744 0.012
 Unknown 33 (7.4) 88 (4.3)   
Lymphovascular invasion [n (%)]
 No 304 (68.0) 1562 (76.4)   
 Yes 101 (22.6) 376 (18.4) 0.012 − 0.052
 Unknown 42 (9.4) 107 (0.2)   
No. of positive nodes
 Median (range) 0 (0–28) 0 (0–40) 0.024 − 0.045
 Unknown 0 (0) 4 (0.2)   
ERa [n (%)]
 Negative 126 (28.2) 476 (23.3)   
 Positive 284 (63.5) 1467 (71.7) 0.009 0.054
 Equivocal 0 (0) 4 (0.2)   
 Unknown 37 (8.3) 98 (4.8)   
PRa [n (%)]
 Negative 141 (31.5) 605 (29.6)   
 Positive 267 (59.7) 1332 (65.1) 0.190 0.027
 Equivocal 0 (0) 4 (0.2)   
 Unknown 39 (8.7) 104 (4.8)   
HER2a [n (%)]
 Negative 274 (61.3) 1365 (66.7)   
 Positive 82 (18.3) 351 (17.2) 0.276 − 0.024
 Equivocal 17 (3.8) 91 (4.4)   
 Unknown 74 (16.6) 238 (11.6)   
Histologic subtype [n (%)]
 Luminal A/B 266 (59.5) 1421 (69.5)   
 HER2 enriched 34 (7.6) 129 (6.3)   
 Basal 68 (15.2) 202 (9.9) < 0.001 0.087
 Unknown 79 (17.7) 293 (14.3)   
Chemotherapy [n (%)]
 No 168 (37.6) 1106 (54.1)   
 Yes 277 (62.0) 934 (45.7) < 0.001 − 0.126
 Unknown 2 (0.4) 5 (0.2)   
First event [n (%)]
 Locoregional recurrence 30 (6.7) 56 (2.7)   
 Distant recurrence 38 (8.5) 91 (4.5)   
 New contralateral breast cancer 17 (3.8) 43 (2.1)   
 New non-breast or unknown cancers 5 (1.1) 40 (2.0)   
 Death (any cause) 2 (0.5) 23 (1.1)   
 Alive without disease 355 (79.4) 1792 (87.6) < 0.001 0.125
Follow-up time (years)
 Median (range) 4.36 (0.18–24.83) 4.09 (0.03–22.14) 0.072 − 0.036
  1. Patients were staged according to the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) system
  2. ER estrogen receptor, PR progesterone receptor
  3. aEquivocal was excluded from the test of association