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Table 3 Serum cytokine marker associations with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in the case–control and nested case–control studies

From: Decreased macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1β increase the risk of developing nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Marker Case–control study (cases)a Nested case–control study (cases)
NPC patients Controls OR1 (95% CI) OR2 (95% CI) OR3 (95% CI) NPC patients Controls OR1 (95% CI) OR2 (95% CI) OR3 (95% CI)
EGF
 Category 1 84 37 Reference Reference Reference 19 30 Reference Reference Reference
 Category 2 38 37 0.45 (0.25–0.82) 0.40 (0.20–0.78) 0.39 (0.20–0.76) 17 33 0.83 (0.35–1.95) 1.18 (0.31–4.55) 1.17 (0.28–4.85)
 Category 3 20 37 0.24 (0.12–0.46) 0.29 (0.14–0.60) 0.30 (0.14–0.62) 11 28 0.63 (0.26–1.54) 0.85 (0.24–2.92) 0.87 (0.22–3.43)
 Category 4 8 37 0.10 (0.04–0.22) 0.09 (0.04–0.24) 0.09 (0.04–0.24) 13 29 0.71 (0.29–1.73) 0.46 (0.11–1.90) 0.62 (0.14–2.77)
P trend    < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001    0.383 0.199 0.434
Eotaxin
 Category 1 51 37 Reference Reference Reference 15 30 Reference Reference Reference
 Category 2 37 37 0.73 (0.39–1.35) 0.59 (0.29–1.19) 0.62 (0.30–1.25) 15 31 0.97 (0.43–2.21) 1.08 (0.35–3.30) 1.01 (0.31–3.21)
 Category 3 32 37 0.63 (0.33–1.18) 0.60 (0.29–1.22) 0.62 (0.30–1.27) 18 29 1.24 (0.53–2.89) 1.22 (0.36–4.12) 1.05 (0.29–3.84)
 Category 4 30 37 0.59 (0.31–1.12) 0.50 (0.24–1.03) 0.53 (0.25–1.10) 12 30 0.80 (0.32–2.01) 1.07 (0.34–3.34) 1.06 (0.30–3.74)
P trend    0.101 0.072 0.103    0.733 0.894 0.921
GCSF
 Category 1 57 39 Reference Reference Reference 14 31 Reference Reference Reference
 Category 2 52 31 1.15 (0.63–2.10) 1.29 (0.65–2.54) 1.36 (0.68–2.73) 11 33 0.68 (0.26–1.81) 1.05 (0.25–4.42) 1.14 (0.26–5.08)
 Category 3 23 35 0.45 (0.23–0.88) 0.39 (0.18–0.84) 0.39 (0.18–0.86) 13 24 1.21 (0.51–2.88) 2.47 (0.70–8.71) 1.91 (0.50–7.38)
 Category 4 11 34 0.22 (0.10–0.49) 0.24 (0.10–0.59) 0.24 (0.10–0.58) 21 29 1.57 (0.65–3.80) 2.33 (0.66–8.22) 2.07 (0.53–8.02)
P trend    < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001    0.130 0.104 0.232
Fractalkine
 Category 1 105 60 Reference Reference Reference 19 39 Reference Reference Reference
 Category 2 33 83 0.23 (0.14–0.38) 0.25 (0.14–0.42) 0.25 (0.14–0.45) 13 32 0.79 (0.33–1.91) 1.47 (0.40–5.34) 1.23 (0.40–5.34)
 Category 3       19 32 1.44 (0.65–3.17) 2.52 (0.75–8.50) 3.44 (0.49–21.57)
P trend         0.244 0.145 0.119
IFN-γ
 Category 1 53 33 Reference Reference Reference 18 42 Reference Reference Reference
 Category 2 41 53 0.48 (0.27–0.87) 0.46 (0.23–0.90) 0.47 (0.24–0.92) 21 37 1.34 (0.63–2.86) 1.70 (0.53–5.45) 1.82 (0.52–6.32)
 Category 3 46 59 0.49 (0.27–0.87) 0.48 (0.25–0.92) 0.50 (0.26–0.96) 15 37 1.06 (0.46–2.42) 2.31 (0.69–7.68) 2.50 (0.68–9.18)
P trend    0.092 0.143 0.179    0.966 0.199 0.202
GRO
 Category 1 82 34 Reference Reference Reference 8 29 Reference Reference Reference
 Category 2 44 37 0.49 (0.27–0.89) 0.44 (0.23–0.86) 0.44 (0.23–0.86) 15 31 1.62 (0.61–4.31) 0.90 (0.23–3.48) 0.63 (0.14–2.84)
 Category 3 18 31 0.24 (0.12–0.49) 0.25 (0.11–0.54) 0.26 (0.12–0.57) 12 30 1.22 (0.41–3.65) 0.52 (0.12–2.34) 0.36 (0.07–1.76)
 Category 4 6 34 0.07 (0.03–0.19) 0.08 (0.03–0.21) 0.08 (0.03–0.21) 18 25 2.40 (0.96–6.04) 1.69 (0.50–5.76) 1.01 (0.26–3.87)
P trend    < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001    0.064 0.229 0.622
MDC
 Category 1 27 38 Reference Reference Reference 17 33 Reference Reference Reference
 Category 2 49 36 1.92 (1.00–3.69) 2.27 (1.08–4.75) 2.21 (1.06–4.63) 6 27 0.46 (0.16–1.33) 0.28 (0.06–1.18) 0.29 (0.07–1.22)
 Category 3 43 38 1.59 (0.82–3.08) 1.40 (0.67–2.96) 1.46 (0.69–3.07) 18 31 1.17 (0.51–2.72) 1.15 (0.35–3.76) 1.29 (0.36–4.59)
 Category 4 30 37 1.14 (0.57–2.27) 1.22 (0.56–2.65) 1.24 (0.57–2.71) 19 29 1.36 (0.55–3.36) 1.59 (0.45–5.69) 1.34 (0.35–5.06)
P trend    0.860 0.794 0.902    0.261 0.264 0.448
IL-1α
 Category 1 125 77 Reference Reference Reference 40 73 Reference Reference Reference
 Category 2 12 51 0.15 (0.07–0.29) 0.17 (0.08–0.37) 0.17 (0.08–0.37) 11 36 0.73 (0.34–1.56) 0.97 (0.38–2.48) 1.17 (0.43–3.17)
IL-7
 Category 1 76 69 Reference Reference Reference 29 82 Reference Reference Reference
 Category 2 48 37 1.18 (0.69–2.02) 0.85 (0.46–1.58) 0.85 (0.46–1.60) 26 35 2.01 (1.03–3.93) 1.32 (0.56–3.12) 0.99 (0.39–2.51)
 Category 3 19 37 0.47 (0.25–0.89) 0.40 (0.19–0.83) 0.40 (0.19–0.83)      
P trend    0.018 0.014 0.014      
IL-8
 Category 1 35 35 Reference Reference Reference 19 29 Reference Reference Reference
 Category 2 30 37 0.81 (0.41–1.59) 0.66 (0.31–1.41) 0.68 (0.32–1.45) 20 29 1.05 (0.46–2.42) 1.08 (0.29–3.92) 1.41 (0.36–5.53)
 Category 3 38 33 1.15 (0.60–2.23) 0.66 (0.31–1.43) 0.70 (0.32–1.52) 8 27 0.38 (0.13–1.09) 0.18 (0.04–0.96) 0.18 (0.03–1.08)
 Category 4 45 34 1.32 (0.69–2.53) 1.05 (0.51–2.18) 1.09 (0.52–2.28) 12 28 0.55 (0.21–1.44) 0.24 (0.04–1.33) 0.26 (0.04–1.83)
P trend    0.220 0.461 0.412    0.169 0.086 0.167
MCP-1
 Category 1 11 38 Reference Reference Reference 22 30 Reference Reference Reference
 Category 2 45 37 4.20 (1.89–9.35) 2.89 (1.20–6.92) 2.84 (1.19–6.80) 6 29 0.17 (0.04–0.65) 0.28 (0.06–1.35) 0.36 (0.07–1.94)
 Category 3 48 39 4.25 (1.92–9.40) 3.45 (1.46–8.18) 3.87 (1.62–9.25) 17 30 0.70 (0.30–1.68) 0.52 (0.15–1.77) 0.56 (0.16–1.99)
 Category 4 46 36 4.41 (1.98–9.83) 3.15 (1.32–7.56) 3.41 (1.42–8.19) 13 29 0.61 (0.24–1.53) 0.48 (0.14–1.71) 0.45 (0.12–1.73)
P trend    0.006 0.043 0.023    0.618 0.375 0.279
MIP-1α
 Category 1 83 66 Reference Reference Reference 20 31 Reference Reference Reference
 Category 2 34 42 0.64 (0.37–1.12) 0.58 (0.31–1.09) 0.60 (0.32–1.14) 14 29 0.81 (0.35–1.89) 0.92 (0.30–2.87) 0.73 (0.25–2.13)
 Category 3 33 42 0.63 (0.36–1.09) 0.48 (0.25–0.92) 0.49 (0.26–0.95) 21 30 1.15 (0.47–2.83) 1.33 (0.35–5.05) 1.24 (0.47–3.26)
 Category 4       5 30 0.29 (0.10–0.85) 0.16 (0.03–0.98) 0.13 (0.03–0.62)
P trend    0.132 0.034 0.045    0.020 0.025 0.009
MIP-1β
 Category 1 47 37 Reference Reference Reference 21 30 Reference Reference Reference
 Category 2 43 37 0.92 (0.49–1.69) 0.83 (0.41–1.65) 0.85 (0.42–1.70) 17 30 0.84 (0.38–1.85) 0.67 (0.23–1.96) 0.62 (0.20–1.88)
 Category 3 35 37 0.75 (0.40–1.40) 0.69 (0.34–1.40) 0.69 (0.34–1.41) 12 30 0.78 (0.34–1.76) 0.63 (0.20–2.03) 0.55 (0.15–2.02)
 Category 4 23 37 0.49 (0.25–0.96) 0.45 (0.21–0.97) 0.47 (0.22–1.00) 10 29 0.39 (0.16–0.99) 0.23 (0.06–0.91) 0.20 (0.04–0.94)
P trend    0.029 0.034 0.041    0.048 0.037 0.043
VEGF
 Category 1 35 39 Reference Reference Reference 15 31 Reference Reference Reference
 Category 2 34 34 1.11 (0.58–2.15) 0.88 (0.41–1.87) 0.81 (0.38–1.74) 8 29 0.62 (0.22–1.75) 0.46 (0.10–2.08) 0.42 (0.09–1.99)
 Category 3 27 36 0.84 (0.43–1.64) 0.85 (0.40–1.83) 0.84 (0.40–1.81) 23 30 1.61 (0.65–3.96) 0.73 (0.18–2.98) 0.58 (0.13–2.61)
 Category 4 44 36 1.36 (0.72–2.57) 1.25 (0.61–2.57) 1.26 (0.61–2.59) 13 29 0.97 (0.37–2.51) 0.78 (0.24–2.57) 0.67 (0.18–2.48)
P trend    0.366 0.433 0.391    0.821 0.926 0.784
  1. NPC nasopharyngeal carcinoma, OR 1 odds ratio computed using logistic regression adjusted for gender and age, OR 2 computed using logistic regression adjusted for gender, age, and anti-Epstein–Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 immunoglobulin A antibody (EBNA1/IgA), OR 3 computed using logistic regression adjusted for gender, age, salted fish consumption, family history, and EBNA1/IgA, CI confidence interval, Category 1 lower than the lower limit of detection among controls with less than three groups or the first quartile with four groups, Category 2 detectable level with two groups, lower than median detectable level among controls with three groups, or in the second quartile with four groups, Category 3 higher than the median detectable level with three groups or in the third quartile with four groups, Category 4 in the fourth quartile among controls, P trend computed using Wald statistic of regression model parameters for marker intracategory medians modeled as a continuous variable, EGF epidermal growth factor, GCSF granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, IFN-γ interferon gamma, GRO growth-regulated oncogene, MDC macrophage-derived chemokine, IL-1α interleukin-1 alpha, IL-7 interleukin-7, IL-8 interleukin-8, MCP-1 monocyte chemotactic protein-1, MIP-1α macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha, MIP-1β macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor
  2. aSamples were excluded from the analysis process for the corresponding marker if the marker serum level of each sample exceeded three times the quartile range above the median