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Table 2 Genes involved in biological processes related to metabolisms of glutamine and glutamate

From: Systematic analyses of glutamine and glutamate metabolisms across different cancer types

Processa Gene(s)
A1. Glutamine uptake SLC1A5, SLC38A1, SLC38A2, SLC38A3, SLC38A5
A2. Glutamine synthesis GLUL
A3. Glutamate uptake SLC1A1, SLC1A2, SLC1A3, SLC1A6, SLC1A7
A4. Glutamate synthesis GLS, GLS2, PFAS, GMPS, CAD, CTPS, CTPS2
B1. Purine de novo synthesis from glutamine PPAT
B2. Purine synthesis by salvage from adenosine APRT, ADA, ADK
B3. Purine synthesis by salvage from guanosine APRT, HPRT1
B4. Purine synthesis by salvage from inosine HPRT1
B5. Adenosine uptake SLC28A1, SLC28A2, SLC28A3, SLC29A1, SLC29A2, SLC29A3, SLC29A4
B6. Guanosine uptake SLC28A2, SLC28A3, SLC29A1, SLC29A2, SLC29A3
B7. Inosine uptake SLC28A2, SLC28A3
C1. Pyrimidine de novo synthesis from glutamine CAD
C2. Pyrimidine synthesis by salvage from cytidine UCK1, UCK2, UCKl1
C3. Pyrimidine synthesis by salvage from uridine UCK1, UCK2, UCKl1, UPP1, UPP2, UPRT
C4. Cytidine uptake SLC28A1, SLC28A2, SLC28A3, SLC29A1, SLC29A2, SLC29A3
C5. Uridine uptake SLC28A1, SLC28A2, SLC28A3, SLC29A1, SLC29A2, SLC29A3
D1. Glycolysis HK1, HK2, HK3, HKDC1, GCK, PFKL, PFKM, PFKP, PKLR, PKM2
D2. Oxidative phosphorylation ATP5A1, ATP5B, ATP5C1, ATP5D, ATP5E, ATP5F1, ATP5G1, ATP5G2, ATP5G3, ATP5H, ATP5I, ATP5 J, ATP5J2, ATP5L, ATP5O
D3. Glucose uptake SLC2A1, SLC2A2, SLC2A3, SLC2A4, SLC2A5, SLC2A6, SLC2A8, SLC2A9, SLC2A10, SLC2A12, SLC2A14, SLC5A2, SLC5A1, SLC5A4, SLC5A9, SLC5A10
E1. Lipid synthesis ACACA, ACACB, FASN
E2. Lipid uptake FABP1, FABP2, FABP3, FABP4, FABP5, FABP6, FABP7, FABP12, APOBR, CD36, CXCL16, ILDR1, LDLR, LRP1, LRP10, LRP12, LRP2, LRP6, LRP8, OLR1, SCARB1, STAB 1, STAB 2, VLDLR
F1. UDP-GlcNAc synthesis from glutamine HK1, HK2, HK3, HKDC1, GCK, GFPT1, GFPT2
F2. UDP-GlcNAc synthesis from glucosamine HK1, HK2, HK3, HKDC1, GNPNAT1, PGM3, UAP1, UAP1L1
F3. Glucosamine uptake SLC2A2
G1. Asparagine synthesis from glutamine ASNS
G2. Asparagine uptake SLC1A5, SLC38A3, SLC38A7
G3. Exchange of asparagine for other amino acids SLC1A4, SLC7A1, SLC7A5
H1. Proline synthesis from glutamine ALDH18A1, PYCR1, PYCR2, PYCRL
H2. Proline synthesis from arginine ARG1, ARG2, OAT, PYCR1, PYCR2, PYCRL
H3. Proline uptake SLC1A4, SLC6A7, SLC6A15, SLC36A4, SLC36A1, SLC36A2, SLC36A3
H4. Arginine uptake SLC7A1, SLC7A2, SLC7A3, PQLC2
H5. Arginine synthesis ASS1
I1. Serine synthesis from glutamine PHGDH, PSAT1, PSPH
I2. Serine uptake SLC1A4, SLC1A5, SLC7A1, SLC7A5, SLC7A10, SLC38A7, SERINC1, SERINC2, SERINC3, SERINC4, SERINC5
J1. GSH synthesis from glutamate GCLC, GCLM, GSS
J2. TXN and catalase synthesis TXN, TXNRD1, TXNRD2, CAD
  1. aThe first letter in each item including A–J represents each group of genes that have the same biological process
  2. UDP-GlcNAc, uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine; GSH, glutathione; TXN, thioredoxin; SLC1A5, solute carrier family 1 member 5; GLUL, glutamate–ammonia ligase; GLS, glutaminase; PFAS, phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase; GMPS, guanine monophosphate synthase; CAD, carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase; CTPS1, CTP synthase 1; PPAT, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase; APRT, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase; ADA, adenosine deaminase; ADK, adenosine kinase; HPRT1, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1; UCK1, uridine–cytidine kinase 1; UCKl1, uridine–cytidine kinase 1 like 1; UPP1, uridine phosphorylase 1; UPRT, uracil phosphoribosyltransferase homolog; HK1, hexokinase 1; HKDC1, hexokinase domain containing 1; GCK, glucokinase; PFKL, phosphofructokinase, liver type; PFKM, phosphofructokinase, muscle; PKLR, pyruvate kinase, liver and RBC; PKM2, pyruvate kinase, muscle; ATP5A1, ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha subunit 1, cardiac muscle; ACACA, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha; FASN, fatty acid synthase; FABP1, fatty acid binding protein 1; APOBR, apolipoprotein B receptor; CD36, CD36 molecule; CXCL16, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 16; ILDR1, immunoglobulin like domain containing receptor 1; LDLR, low density lipoprotein receptor; LRP1, LDL receptor related protein 1; OLR1, oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1; SCARB1, scavenger receptor class B member 1; STAB 1, stabilin 1; VLDLR, very low density lipoprotein receptor; GFPT1, glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1; GNPNAT1, glucosamine-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1; PGM3, phosphoglucomutase 3; UAP1, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase 1; UAP1L1, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase 1 like 1; ASNS, asparagine synthetase; ALDH18A1, aldehyde dehydrogenase 18 family member A1; PYCR1, pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1; PYCRL, pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase-like; ARG1, arginase 1; OAT, ornithine aminotransferase; PQLC2, PQ loop repeat containing 2; ASS1, argininosuccinate synthase 1; PSAT1, phosphoserine aminotransferase 1; PSPH, phosphoserine phosphatase; SERINC1, serine incorporator 1; SGCLC, glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit; GCLM, glutamate–cysteine ligase modifier subunit; GSS, glutathione synthetase; TXNRD1, thioredoxin reductase 1