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Table 1 Associations of potential factors with NPC stage at diagnosis

From: Potential factors associated with clinical stage of nasopharyngeal carcinoma at diagnosis: a case–control study

Variable NPC stage at diagnosis [cases (%)] Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)a
Early stage Late stage
Education level
 Middle school or lower 45 (38.1) 132 (48.2) 1.00 1.00
 High school or higher 73 (61.9) 142 (51.8) 0.56 (0.33–0.95)* 0.58 (0.32–1.05)
Occupation
 Unskilled workers 22 (18.6) 67 (24.5) 1.00 1.00
 Skilled workers 75 (63.6) 144 (52.5) 0.52 (0.28–0.98)* 0.57 (0.27–1.22)
 Retired or unemployed 21 (17.8) 63 (23.0) 0.95 (0.44–2.06) 0.99 (0.42–2.32)
Working hours per weekb
 0–30 33 (28.2) 87 (31.8) 1.00 1.00
 31–50 48 (41.0) 91 (33.2) 0.70 (0.38–1.28) 0.75 (0.38–1.48)
 51 or more 36 (30.8) 96 (35.0) 0.95 (0.50–1.78) 0.81 (0.40–1.63)
Insurance
 UBMI1 72 (61.0) 168 (61.3) 1.00 1.00
 NRCMS 37 (31.4) 86 (31.4) 1.13 (0.58–2.22) 1.14 (0.50–2.60)
 UBMI2 6 (5.1) 4 (1.5) 0.25 (0.07–0.91)* 0.31 (0.08–1.23)
 Others 3 (2.5) 16 (5.8) 2.60 (0.72–9.41) 2.10 (0.51–8.62)
Number of family membersc
 First tertile (1–2) 12 (10.3) 52 (19.0) 1.00 1.00
 Second tertile (3–4) 75 (64.7) 129 (47.1) 0.41 (0.21–0.82)* 0.48 (0.23–0.98)*
 Third tertile (≥5) 29 (25.0) 93 (33.9) 0.73 (0.34–1.55) 0.83 (0.37–1.86)
Residence ownershipd
 No 18 (15.4) 31 (11.3) 1.00 1.00
 Yes 99 (84.6) 243 (88.7) 1.35 (0.73–2.49) 1.77 (0.81–3.88)
Residence structure
 Bungalow 31 (26.3) 88 (32.1) 1.00 1.00
 House 22 (18.6) 51 (18.6) 0.82 (0.43–1.55) 1.04 (0.51–2.12)
 Apartment 64 (54.2) 133 (48.6) 0.68 (0.40–1.17) 0.99 (0.50–1.96)
 Others 1 (0.8) 2 (0.7) 0.69 (0.06–8.04) 0.68 (0.06–8.17)
Residence size (m2)
 First tertile (<100) 66 (56.0) 160 (58.4) 1.00 1.00
 Second tertile (100–120) 19 (16.0) 24 (8.8) 0.52 (0.27–1.02) 0.61 (0.29–1.29)
 Third tertile (>120) 33 (28.0) 90 (32.8) 1.15 (0.70–1.90) 1.13 (0.65–1.96)
Area per person (m2)e
 First tertile (<24) 27 (23.3) 82 (30.0) 1.00 1.00
 Second tertile (24–35) 50 (43.1) 96 (35.0) 0.60 (0.33–1.07) 0.64 (0.33–1.24)
 Third tertile (>35) 39 (33.6) 96 (35.0) 0.76 (0.42–1.38) 0.80 (0.41–1.55)
Appliance ownershipf
 Car 56 (48.7) 116 (42.3) 0.74 (0.46–1.20) 0.78 (0.47–1.29)
 Motorbike 63 (54.3) 97 (35.4) 0.45 (0.29–0.71)* 0.38 (0.23–0.64)*
 Computer 89 (76.7) 207 (75.5) 0.84 (0.46–1.53) 0.86 (0.45–1.63)
 Television 111 (95.7) 256 (93.4) 0.58 (0.20–1.66) 0.66 (0.22–2.03)
 Air conditioner 102 (87.9) 226 (82.5) 0.48 (0.22–1.05) 0.52 (0.23–1.19)
 Washing machine 97 (83.6) 227 (82.8) 0.86 (0.44–1.66) 0.93 (0.46–1.87)
 Vacuum cleaner 38 (32.8) 80 (29.2) 0.86 (0.54–1.36) 0.89 (0.54–1.45)
Wealth scoreg
 First tertile (<−3.9) 44 (37.3) 83 (30.3) 1.00 1.00
 Second tertile (−3.9 to 1.1) 38 (32.2) 93 (33.9) 1.29 (0.76–2.19) 1.26 (0.72–2.20)
 Third tertile (>1.1) 36 (30.5) 98 (35.8) 1.64 (0.90–2.99) 1.75 (0.88–3.47)
Family cancer history
 None 78 (66.1) 189 (69.0) 1.00 1.00
 NPC 18 (15.3) 36 (13.1) 0.86 (0.46–1.61) 0.78 (0.40–1.53)
 Other cancers 22 (18.6) 49 (17.9) 0.95 (0.54–1.67) 0.93 (0.51–1.72)
Smoking history
 Never smoker 74 (62.7) 160 (58.4) 1.00 1.00
 Former smoker 18 (15.3) 14 (5.1) 0.35 (0.14–0.85)* 0.29 (0.11–0.77)*
 Current smoker 26 (22.0) 100 (36.5) 1.72 (0.93–3.19) 1.75 (0.92–3.32)
Cigarette number per dayh
 <10 22 (51.2) 31 (27.2) 1.00 1.00
 10–30 19 (44.2) 66 (57.9) 2.87 (1.14–7.25)* 4.03 (1.11–14.68)*
 >30 2 (4.6) 17 (14.9) 6.04 (1.09–33.32)* 11.46 (1.26–103.91)*
Salted fish consumptioni
 Seldom or never 72 (61.5) 131 (48.0) 1.00 1.00
 Every month 25 (21.4) 70 (25.6) 1.58 (0.91–2.74) 1.53 (0.85–2.73)
 Every week 20 (17.1) 72 (26.4) 1.89 (1.07–3.34)* 1.71 (0.93–3.17)
Knowledge of NPC early symptoms
 No 40 (33.9) 138 (50.4) 1.00 1.00
 Yes 78 (66.1) 136 (49.6) 0.54 (0.35–0.83)* 0.60 (0.37–0.98)*
Knowledge of NPC risk factors
 No 88 (74.6) 223 (81.4) 1.00 1.00
 Yes 30 (25.4) 51 (18.6) 0.66 (0.38–1.12) 0.74 (0.42–1.31)
Physical examination
 Never 51 (43.2) 167 (60.9) 1.00 1.00
 Ever 67 (56.8) 107 (39.1) 0.40 (0.24–0.67)* 0.50 (0.28–0.89)*
Patient interval (months)
 ≤3 95 (80.5) 188 (68.6) 1.00 1.00
 >3 23 (19.5) 86 (31.4) 1.87 (1.13–3.11)* 1.83 (1.07–3.13)*
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, UBMI1 urban basic medical insurance uncovering state-owned enterprise employees and government staffs, NRCMS new rural cooperative medical scheme, UBMI2 urban basic medical insurance of state-owned enterprise employees and government staffs
  2. * Statistically significant results
  3. aAdjusted for education level, wealth score, smoking history, salted fish consumption, and family cancer history. When one of these possible confounders was the variable of interest, the other possible confounders were adjusted
  4. bData was missing for one patient in the early stage group
  5. cData was missing for two patients in the early stage group
  6. dData was missing for one patient in the early stage group
  7. eData was missing for two patients in the early stage group
  8. fFor each appliance, the reference group comprised the subjects that did not own the appliance. The multivariate analysis of these appliance ownership variables was not adjusted for the wealth score
  9. gBecause appliances associated with higher wealth are located on the bottom half of the multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) graph, a lower score indicates a higher level of wealth
  10. hWe only included former and current smokers. The multivariate analysis of the number of cigarettes per day was not adjusted for the smoking history
  11. iData was missing for one patient in the early stage group and one in the late stage group