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Table 1 Recent studies on the pro-survival role of autophagy in multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer

From: Autophagy and multidrug resistance in cancer

Intervention for tumor treatment Cell line Method(s) to study autophagy References
miR-23b-3p Vincristine-resistant SGC7901 CQ, siRNAs (Atg12, HMGB2) [60]
5-FU Drug-resistant esophageal cancer cells 3-MA, siRNAs (Beclin1, Atg7) [61]
Epirubicin Epirubicin-resistant MDA-MB-231 CQ [62]
Ursolic acid PTEN-deficient PC3 3-MA, siRNAs (Atg5, Beclin1) [63]
FTY720 Cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells siRNAs (Beclin1, LC3), Baf A1 [64]
PI-103 PTEN-deficient glioma cell lines siRNA (Atg5), Baf A1, 3-MA [65]
PP2 Ras-NIH3T3/Mdr 3-MA [66]
SAHA Imatinib-resistant CML cells CQ [67]
B-raf inhibitors B-Raf inhibitor-resistant melanoma cells HCQ [68]
Cisplatin Cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP 3-MA [69]
Docetaxel Adriamycin-resistant MCF-7 CQ [70]
Doxorubicin Adriamycin-resistant MCF-7 CQ [71]
Vincristine VCR-resistant ovarian carcinoma SKVCR 3-MA, CQ [72]
  1. 5-FU, 5-fluorouracil; FTY720, 2-amino-2-[2-(4-octylphenyl)]-1,3-propanediol hydrochloride; PP2, 4-amino-5-(4-chloro-phenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine; SAHA, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid; PTEN, phosphatase and tensin homologue; CML, chronic myelogenous leukemia; VCR, vincristine resistance; CQ, chloroquine; siRNA, small interfering RNA; Atg, autophagy-related gene; HMGB2, high-mobility group box 2; 3-MA, 3-methyladenine; Baf A1, bafilomycin A1; LC3, protein 1 light chain 3; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine