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Fig. 1 | Chinese Journal of Cancer

Fig. 1

From: Immune mediators in the tumor microenvironment of prostate cancer

Fig. 1

Key immune cells and cytokines in the tumor microenvironment of prostate cancer. Tregs suppress the activation of anti-tumor T cells to promote tumor progression. Th17 cells may promote or inhibit prostate cancer progression depending on the context. Macrophages promote prostate cancer growth through efferocytosis. Inflammatory stimuli can lead to IL-6 production, which, in turn, can promote prostate cancer growth. Prostate cancer cells can produce RANKL directly and stimulate host cells (e.g., osteocytes) to produce RANKL in the tumor microenvironment. RANKL can then mediate tumor-induced bone remodeling through osteoclast activation. IL-6 interleukin-6, macrophage, RANKL receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, Th17 T helper 17, Treg T-regulatory cell, FoxP3 forkhead box P3

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