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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors for overall survival

From: Microwave ablation is as effective as radiofrequency ablation for very-early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma

Variable Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
P value Odds ratio (95% CI) P value
Sex: men vs. women 0.222   
Age (years): >65 vs. ≤65 0.762   
Heredity: yes vs. no 0.932   
Etiology: cryptogenic vs. HBV vs. HCV vs. schistosomiasis 0.211   
Tumor location: favorable vs. unfavorable 0.294   
Child–Pugh class: A vs. B 0.083   
HBV-DNA: positive vs. negative vs. absence 0.839   
Antiviral therapy: yes vs. no 0.002 0.468 (0.299–0.734) 0.001
ALT (U/L): <40 vs. 40–80 vs. >80 0.556   
TBIL (μmol/L): ≤20 vs. >20 0.563   
DBIL (μmol/L): ≤7 vs. >7 0.079   
ALB (g/L): <35 vs. ≥35 0.036 1.200 (0.687–2.095) 0.521
GGT (U/L): <50 vs. 50–100 vs. >100 0.366   
PLT (×109/L): <100 vs. ≥100 0.199   
PT (s): ≤13 vs. >13 0.115   
AFP level (μg/L): <20 vs. 20–200 vs. >200 0.014 0.881 (0.679–1.143) 0.341
CA19-9 (kU/L): ≤39 vs. >39 0.878   
TA modality: MWA vs. RFA 0.331   
Initial local efficiency: complete vs. incomplete ablation 0.182   
LTP: presence vs. absence <0.001 3.711 (2.410–5.714) <0.001
DR: presence vs. absence 0.152   
Treatment of recurrence: radical vs. palliative <0.001 0.241 (0.147–0.395) <0.001
  1. CI confidence interval, HBV hepatitis B virus, HCV hepatitis C virus, ALT alanine aminotransferase, TBIL total bilirubin, DBIL direct bilirubin, ALB albumin, GGT gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, PLT platelet, PT prothrombin time, AFP alpha fetoprotein, TA thermal ablation, RFA radiofrequency ablation, MWA microwave ablation, LTP local tumor progression, DR distant recurrence