Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Selected clinical characteristics of EBV and HPV infections across West Europe, East Europe, and East Asia

From: The most important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology

Clinical characteristic West Europe East Europe East Asia
Early EBV infection + ++ ++++
Late EBV infection: infectious mononucleosis (IM) ++++ ++ +
 Male-to-female ratio (IM) 1:1.5 Not available Not available
Prevalence of (hypothesized late EBV infection) multiple sclerosis (MS) (per 105) >30 5–30 <5
 Male-to-female ratio (MS) 1:2 Not available 1:5
Hypothesized early infection with EBV in males + ++ ++++
Hypothesized early infection with EBV in females Rare + ++
Hypothesized early infection with HPV in males ++++ ++ +
Hypothesized early infection with HPV in females +++ ++ +++
Proportion of patients with HPV-positive OPC (%) 66 30 10
Proportion of female OPC patients who are HPV-positive (%) 45 40 60
Proportion of male OPC patients who are HPV-positive (%) 65 40 30
 Male-to-female ratio 1.5 1.0 0.5
Socio-economic status (1950s–1960s) ++++ ++ +
Associated chronic infections (e.g., chronic periodontitis and tuberculosis) + +++ ++++
Male HPV-positive OPC ++++ + Rare
Female nasopharyngeal carcinoma Rare + ++
Male nasopharyngeal carcinoma + ++ ++++
Female non-smoking lung adenocarcinoma + ++ ++++
Triple-negative breast cancer + ++ +++
  1. EBV Epstein–Barr virus, HPV human papilloma virus, OPC oropharyngeal carcinoma