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Table 2 Potential application of ctDNA in clinical oncology

From: Cell-free circulating tumor DNA in cancer

Cancer screening Localized cancer Metastatic cancer Refractory cancer
Early diagnosis and early intervention Identifying specific genomic alterations to guide therapeutic selection, monitoring tumor burden and therapeutic responses, detecting minimal residual disease, assessing risks of dissemination and recurrence Early identification of relapse and treatment resistance, guidance of treatment selection, monitoring therapeutic responses Understanding mechanism of resistance, determining new treatment