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Table 1 Summary of co-infection of EBV and HPV in several malignancies

From: Co-infection of Epstein-Barr virus and human papillomavirus in human tumorigenesis

Tumor type Co-infection Subtype of HPV EBV product(s) Reference
NPC 15% (Iran) 6/11, 16/18 EBER [30]
  34% (Morocco) 16, 31, 45, 48 EBER [31]
  42% (China) 18 EBER [32]
Cervical cancer 31.8% 16, 18, 58 EBER [39]
  12.5%–69% 16, 18 BALF1, BARF-1, LMP1 [59]
  21.2%–64.3% 16, 18 EBNA3B [60]
Breast cancer 35% 16, 18, 33 LMP1, EBNA-1 [21]
Prostate cancer 8.8% (Sweden) 18 EBER [88]
  37% (United States) 18 EBER, EBNA-1 [89]
  1. EBV Epstein-Barr virus; HPV human papillomavirus; NPC nasopharyngeal carcinoma; EBER EBV-encoded RNA; BALF1 BamH1 A fragment leftward reading frame 1; BARF-1 BamH1-A right frame 1; LMP1 latent membrane protein 1; EBNA3B EBV nuclear antigen 3B; EBNA-1 EBV nuclear antigen