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Table 1 Frequencies of genetic changes leading to deregulation of the signaling pathways in colorectal cancers

From: Molecular pathogenesis of sporadic colorectal cancers

Pathway Frequency of genetic changes leading to deregulation
Non-hypermutated (%) Hypermutated (%)
WNT signaling 92 97
TGF-β signaling 27 87
PI3K signaling 50 53
RTK-RAS signaling 59 80
TP53 signaling 64 47
  1. Reproduced from Fig. 4 in Nature 2012;487:330–7 authored by the Cancer Genome Atlas Network [61] with modifications, with permission
  2. WNT wingless/int-1, TGF-β transforming growth factor β, PI3K phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, RTK receptor tyrosine kinase, RAS rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog, TP53 tumor protein 53