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Table 1 Mapping from hallmarks to Gene ontology (GO) processes

From: A multilevel pan-cancer map links gene mutations to cancer hallmarks

Hallmark

No. of genes

No. of pathways

Linked GO processes and function

Sustaining proliferative signaling

343

50

GO:0008283, cell proliferation

GO:0016049, cell growth

GO:0007049, cell cycle

GO:0051301, cell division

GO:0008284, positive regulation of cell proliferation

GO:0030307, positive regulation of cell growth

GO:0045787, positive regulation of cell cycle

GO:0051781, positive regulation of cell division

Evading growth suppressors

182

13

GO:0009968, negative regulation of signal transduction

GO:0008285, negative regulation of cell proliferation

GO:0030308, negative regulation of cell growth

GO:0045786, negative regulation of cell cycle

GO:0051782, negative regulation of cell division

Resisting cell death

404

57

GO:0012501, programmed cell death

GO:0043067, regulation of programmed cell death

Replicative immortality

2

1

GO:0090398, cellular senescence

GO:0032200, telomere organization

GO:0000723, telomere maintenance

GO:0032204, regulation of telomere maintenance

GO:0001302, replicative cell aging

GO:1900062, regulation of replicative cell aging

GO:2000772, regulation of cellular senescence

Sustained angiogenesis

105

12

GO:0001525, angiogenesis

GO:0045765, regulation of angiogenesis

GO:0001570, vasculogenesis

GO:2001212, regulation of vasculogenesis

GO:0008015, blood circulation

Tissue invasion and metastasis

614

82

GO:0007155, cell adhesion

GO:0001837, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

GO:0016477, cell migration

GO:0030155, regulation of cell adhesion

GO:0030030, cell projection organization

GO:0030036, actin cytoskeleton organization

GO:0030030, cell projection organization

GO:0034330, cell junction organization

GO:0042330, taxis

GO:0007163, establishment or maintenance of cell polarity

Genome instability

124

7

GO:0006281, DNA repair

GO:0031570, DNA integrity checkpoint

GO:0045005, maintenance of fidelity involved in DNA-dependent DNA replication

GO:0006282, regulation of DNA repair

Tumor-promoting inflammation

84

9

GO:0006954, inflammatory response

GO:0002367, cytokine production involved in immune response

GO:0002718, regulation of cytokine production involved in immune response

GO:0042060, wound healing

GO:0061041, regulation of wound healing

GO:0050727, regulation of inflammatory response

GO:0042533, tumor necrosis factor biosynthetic process

Reprogramming energy metabolism

8

2

GO:0006006, glucose metabolic process

GO:0046323, glucose import

GO:0006096, glycolysis

GO:0071456, cellular response to hypoxia

Evading immune destruction

150

19

GO:0006955, immune response

GO:0002418, immune response to tumor cells

GO:0002837, regulation of immune response to tumor cells

GO:0020012, evasion or tolerance of host immune response

GO:0006897, endocytosis

Other

1047

142